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BUS 490: Business Strategies

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a list of the sources you used to research a topic, where each citation is followed by a short paragraph (~150 words) that tells the reader about the source's relevance, accuracy, and quality. These annotations are a great place to summarize each source for your readers and tell them why that source was useful to you -- or even why it was not.

Below is an example of an annotated bibliography citation cited and formatted in APA style (7th ed.):

Duarte, F., & Ratti, C. (2018). The impact of autonomous vehicles on cities: A review. Journal of Urban Technology, 25(4), 3-18.
The authors argue that the adoption of autonomous vehicles (AVs) represents an opportunity to embrace urban transformation. Cities were designed to incorporate the rise of the automobile, and the authors urge city planners, administrators, policymakers, and engineers to use the major technological advancements in AVs to rethink how cities are designed. The article poses crucial questions (such as will AVs lead to more or fewer cars on the road, how will AVs affect parking, and how AVs impact urban sprawl) that will be essential considerations as cities begin to grapple with the advances in AVs, and how to best implement change to improve urban life. Overall it was a thoughtful and insightful article covering the history of vehicles influencing city planning and how AVs might impact the future.

Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliographies are formatted and ordered much the same as you would a reference list:

  • Order citations in alphabetical order, by the first letter of the citation
  • Include the annotation as a new paragraph below the citation
  • Each citation and annotation should be double-spaced and formatted with a hanging indent

Always use the specifications determined by your instructor in addition to these guidelines.

For an example of an annotated bibliography formatted in APA style (7th ed.), see the following sample document: