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AMA Citation Guide
Emails, Listserv, and Interviews: Personal Communications

Emails, Listserv, and Interviews: Personal Communications

AMA considers email, listserv messages, and interviews to be personal communications; therefore, they are NOT included on the References list and are cited only in text. An exception to this is if a listserv has reliable linking. If that is the case, it should be cited as a website.

Use parentheses for the in-text citation and include the name of the person involved in the communication, the highest academic degree of the person, the type of communication (email, listserv, or oral), and the date the message was sent. 

Email In-Text Citation Examples:

These findings have been noted by L.S. Brown, Ph.D. (email communication, January 3, 2021).

The latest data on the ecological impact of wind turbines shows that bird populations in the Midwest have been less affected compared to those on the west coast. (Netanya Roden, MD, e-mail communication, June 15, 2020).

Listserv In-Text Citation Example:

The International Writing Centers Association (IWCA) is hosting an award ceremony announcing the winners of the annual essay contest (Jennifer Carlson, MAEd, IWCA listserv, November 29, 2020).

Interview In-Text Citation Examples:

According to the manufacturer, the drug became available in Italy in March 2017 manufacturer (Elizabeth Jacobson, oral communication, December 2022).

In a conversation with Suk Jin Park, MD (January 2021)...