An in-text citation refers to the various ways that you can incorporate ideas from your sources into the body of your essays while giving the original authors credit for their ideas. You will need to include in-text citations every time you refer to, quote from, paraphrase or summarize a given source. You will also need to cite facts, figures, images, video, audio or any other element you include in your work, but did not create yourself.
There are two main ways to incorporate information from sources into your essay, direct quotes and paraphrasing.
You do not need to cite your own ideas, opinions, or experiences.
You also do not need to cite things that are common knowledge (something the average person would be expected to know). Some examples include: the current president's name, who invented the light bulb, the capital of South Korea, there are twelve months in a year, etc. If you are not sure if it is common knowledge, it is safer to cite it!
Direct quotes are when someone else's words are copied word-for-word into your paper. Since you are using someone else's exact words, it's even more important to include a citation telling the reader where this information came from.
While it is recommended to use direct quotes sparingly (paraphrasing is another method) using the exact text from an article or book is still a great way to share an idea! For example, direct quotes are useful when an author says something especially memorable or you want to respond directly to something in your own paper.
Direct quotes (that are shorter than three lines) require quotation marks. When citing it, be sure to list the author and page number!
An important part of self-care is being "aware of and accepting your own thoughts and feelings" (Pate 2).
Pate listed some self-care activities such as "jogging, yoga, exercise, listening or dancing to music, taking a walk outdoors, or other relaxing or invigorating activities" (5).
Block quotes are used when a direct quote is four lines or more. A sentence setting up the quote usually ends in a colon and is followed by the quoted text. Rather than using quotation marks, the quote is indented, double-spaced, and cited without a period at the end.
Pate described the importance of boundaries:
Having healthy boundaries means knowing what your limits are and clearly communicating what you will and will not allow, as well as what you need. Establishing clear and healthy boundaries can support health and wellness for all. Some people need more connection and interaction — physically, socially, or mentally — while others need more quiet time and solitude. It’s important to understand what you need and clearly communicate that to others. (5)
The meaning behind and importance of boundaries can be described with the following:
Having healthy boundaries means knowing what your limits are and clearly communicating what you will and will not allow, as well as what you need. Establishing clear and healthy boundaries can support health and wellness for all. Some people need more connection and interaction — physically, socially, or mentally — while others need more quiet time and solitude. It’s important to understand what you need and clearly communicate that to others. (Pate 5)
Paraphrasing is when you take another person's words or ideas and put them into your own words. Even though you are not directly quoting someone else, credit still needs to be given.
Paraphrasing allows you to summarize and make connections between several different sources. Paraphrasing also keeps your paper in your own "voice" and avoids interrupting the flow of your writing with frequent direct quotes.
See below for several examples on how to give credit for ideas you are paraphrasing.
Be sure to use your own words and give credit for the idea to the original source. Page numbers are not a requirement for paraphrases but are worth considering if they would help the reader find what you are referring to.
Self-care involves being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and conditions as well as being purposeful in taking steps to maintain and improve mental and physical health (Pate 2).
Pate advocated for the importance of self-care, which requires a person to have an awareness of their own physical and mental state, which is then used to take deliberate steps in maintaining or improving their health (2).