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Chicago/Turabian Guide


Some instructors may ask you to use footnotes. Footnotes are located at the bottom of the page and are numbered in the order they appear within the text. To indicate a footnote within the text, superscript numbers (corresponding to the numbered footnotes) are used.

Be sure to start every footnote on the same page where you reference the source (unless you are using endnotes).

If you cite the same source more than once, use a shortened form of your first footnote citation, including the author's last name, the title, and the page number. See more about this on the Citing with Notes/Bibliography Style page.

Your footnotes should be formatted similarly to the example below.


        The font of your paper should match the font used in the footnotesand have corresponding numbers. Within the text, use numbers in superscript. In the footnotes, use a regular size number. If a source is used more than once, use an abbreviated citation after the initial full citation2. Footnotes are single-spaced while the text of your paper is double-spaced3. However, there is a space between each footnote.






1. Author's First and Last Name, Title of Book. (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number(s), File Type or URL (for ebooks).

2. Author's Last Name, Title of Book, page number(s).

3. Author's First and Last Names, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume, Issue Number (Year): Pages, URL, DOI, or Database.

To add footnotes into your paper, follow these directions for Microsoft Word, Google Docs, or Apple Pages.


Include works in your bibliography that contributed to your work, even if you did not cite them directly.

Start off your bibliography with the word Bibliography at the top of the page, centered, and in bold. Two lines below that, arrange your citations alphabetically by author. If you used more than one work by a single author, list these works alphabetically by the author's name, then alphabetically by title. Replace the author's name in all entries but the first with a 3-em dash.

Bibliographies are single-spaced but have a space in-between citations. Hanging indents are used for citations longer than one line. Your bibliography page should look similar to the example below.




Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. File type or URL (for ebooks).


Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume (Issue): Pages. URL, DOI, or Database.


______. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume (Issue): Pages. URL, DOI, or Database.


Publishing Organization. Year of Publication or n.d. (if no date is available). "Title of Web Page." Published, Modified, or Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.