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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide
How to Cite...

How to Cite...

This section of the guide includes examples of how to cite sources within your paper and on your reference list. Use the tabs on the left to find the type of source you need.

Unsure how to cite something? Ask a librarian!

Reference List

At the end of your paper, you need to include a list of the sources you used to write it (this list of sources also corresponds to any in-text citations you have).

In your reference list, sources are identified by the author, year of publication, title, source, links, and more. Use the tabs on the left to find how your resource should be cited.

The top of the page should have a heading that is centered, bolded, and titled References.

Sources are then listed in alphabetical order. Reference lists are double-spaced (like the rest of your paper) and use 'hanging indents' for citations that take up more than one line.

Reference Page Format:


Author, A. A., & Author B. B. (Year of publication). Book title: Subtitle also begins with capital letter. Publisher.

Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Article title: Subtitle also begins with capital letter. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), Page range. Link or doi link to the article that is hyperlinked and black.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why do I need a reference list?

  • It helps make sure that you do not accidentally plagiarize another person's work.
  • It adds credibility to what you are saying because it shows that you have researched your topic. 
  • It allows the reader of your paper to see where you got your information in case they want to learn more.


What needs to be included in my reference list?

Any source you cited within your paper (journal articles, books, YouTube videos, etc.). All in-text citations should correspond to an entry in your reference list (with a few exceptions).


Is there anything I do NOT need to cite? 

You do not need to cite your own ideas, opinions, or experiences.

You also do not need to cite things that are common knowledge (something the average person would be expected to know). Some examples include: the current president's name, who invented the light bulb, the capital of South Korea, there are twelve months in a year, etc.  If you are not sure if it is common knowledge, it is safer to include a citation.


Is there a difference between bibliographies and reference lists?

The terms bibliography, reference list, and works cited page are often used interchangeably. Same with terms such as bibliographic citations, references, and citations. This is due to the history of varied citation styles and preferred terminology. So while these terms do have some technical differences, in most cases they refer to the same idea.

An exception to this is an annotated bibliography, as they differ from a regular reference list. An annotated bibliography is a reference list that includes short summaries after each citation with information about the source's relevance, accuracy, and quality.


How can I make an indirect citation (a citation within a citation)?

An indirect citation (also known as citing a secondary source or a citation within a citation) is necessary when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

If you cannot access the original source, use these steps to give proper credit: 

  • In the reference list, include the details of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.
  • For the in-text reference, include the author and year of both the original and secondary sources. Add "as cited in" between the sources in the in-text reference. For example, (Smith, 2015, as cited in Jonson, 2019). See more on the Secondary Source / Indirect Citation (as cited in...) page


Where do I put a citation that doesn't have an author?

If the citation does not have an author, use the first word of the citation (usually the title) to alphabetize it in your reference list. See more about citing sources with missing information on the Missing Information page.



What if I am citing two sources with the same author and year?

If you have two or more sources with the same author(s) and year, use the titles to determine which citation should be listed first on your reference list.

Add letters (starting with a) after the year. For example:

Munson, D. J. (2020a). ...

Munson, D. J. (2020b). ...

This makes sure your in-text citations clearly show which sources you are citing. Here are what the in-text citations look like with the additional letter after the year:

According to Munson (2020a)...

... (Munson, 2020b).

How to Cite...

The "How to Cite..." portion of the guide includes examples of bibliographic and in-text citations for a wide variety of sources.  Use the drop-down under "How to Cite..." on the left to navigate the examples.